Stem cell therapy in veterinary medicine

            The somatic cell fieldv in medical specialty continues to evolve speedily each by experimentation and clinically. Stem cells are most ordinarily employed in the clinical medical specialty in therapeutic applications for the treatment of contractor injuries in horses and dogs. New technologies of the assisted replica are being developed to use the properties of spermatogonial stem cells to preserve vulnerable animal species. The same methods can be used to generate transgenic animals for the production of pharmaceuticals or for use as biomedical models. Small and huge animal species function valuable models for the presymptomatic analysis of somatic cell applications in the citizenry and in veterinary patients in areas like medulla spinal is injury and myocardial infarction. However, these applications haven't been enforced within the clinical treatment of veterinary patients. Reviews on the employment of animal models for somatic cell analysis are printed recently. Therefore, during this review, animal model analysis is going to be reviewed solely within the context of supporting this clinical application of stem cells in a medical specialty.

Related Societies: International Stem Cell Research |Australasian Society for Stem Cell Research| The National Stem Cell Foundation | Dutch Society for Stem Cell Research |Canadian Association for Research in Regenerative Medicine

Stem cell and Regenerative Medicine

            The past decade has huge advances in the field of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Stem cells play a very important role in Regenerative Medicine and have so many applications. First, because of their role in the development and their potential to develop into many different cell types, stem cells are vital to the field of developmental biology. Stem cells are alike cells that are present in the embryonic and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that are building blocks of tissue and organs. In the post-natal and adult stages of life, tissue-specific stem cells are found in differentiated organs. 
            Regenerative medicine helps the human body to form new functional tissue to replace lost or defective ones. This helps to provide therapeutic treatment for conditions where current therapies are inadequate. The human body has an endogenous system of regeneration through stem cells, where stem cells are found almost in every type of tissue. Restoration of function is better accomplished by these cells. RM comprises the use of stem cell technology and tissue engineering.

Related SocietiesStem Cell Evaluation Technology Research Association | International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT)| The Centre for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (The Stem Cell Centre)| German Society for Stem Cell Research (GSZ)| Euro Stem Cell: Stem Cell Research

 

 

Pancreas, Diabetes and Liver Disease

            Diabetes mellitus represents one of the most prevalent diseases. Chronic liver disease affects many people in the world, resulting in cirrhosis, liver failure, and death. Stem cell therapy potentially can give a source of the liver and pancreatic cells for these patients, and thus a viable, definitive cure for liver failure and diabetes. Advances in stem cell biology and the discovery of pluripotent stem cells have made the prospect of cell therapy and tissue regeneration a clinical reality. Cell therapies promise to repair, restore, regenerate or replace affected organs and may perform better than any pharmacological or mechanical device.

Related Societies: International Society for Stem Cell Research| Formosa Association Regenerative Medicine (FARM)| International Stem Cell Research| Australasian Society for Stem Cell Research| The National Stem Cell Foundation| Dutch Society for Stem Cell Research |Canadian Association for Research in Regenerative Medicine. 

Cancer, Stem Cells and Developmental Biology

            Stem cells are not only used for regenerative medicine but are also considered as a useful tool for cancer treatment. For a long time, stem cells have been utilized to renew the immune system for radiation or chemotherapy-treated patients. Recently, stem cells are being engineered to carry therapeutic reagents to target tumour sites. Cancer vaccines depend on the knowledge of cancer stem cells that have been studied and applied for cancer treatment. In- induced pluripotent stem cells have been used to create active T cells to support cancer immunotherapy. Those all are due to the unique characteristics of stem cells, like immunological tolerance, migration, and tissue reparation.
            There is a small population of cancer stem cells inside tumours with capabilities of differentiation, self-renewal, and tumorigenicity once transplanted into an animal host. The CSC hypothesis thus doesn't imply that cancer is always caused by stem cells or that the potential application of stem cells to treat conditions like cardiovascular disease or diabetes which is able to result in tumour formation. Stem cell transplants are restoring blood-forming stem cells in people who have had theirs destroyed by the very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy that are used to treat certain cancers.

Related Societies: California Institute for Regenerative Medicine |Australian Society for Stem Cell Research | Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research| Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine| Society for Hematology and Stem Cells (ISEH)

Stem Cell Therapies in Cardiovascular Disease

            Heart Disease is the leading cause of death in the world. Recent clinical trials and laboratory experiments suggest that cell therapies can improve cardiac function. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells and other progenitor cells can differentiate into vascular cell types, restoring blood flow. Resident cardiac stem cells have been shown to differentiate into multiple cell types present in the heart, along with cardiac muscle cells, indicating that the heart is not terminally differentiated. These new findings have stimulated optimism that the progression of heart failure can be reversed with this technique.  

Related Societies: Korean Society for Stem Cell Research |Danish Stem Cell Society |European Stem Cell Community| European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute | International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS)| South African Stem Cell Transplantation Society (SASCeTS)

Hematopoietic stem cell

            Stem cells that give rise to other blood cells are called as Hematopoietic stem cells and the process is called haematopoiesis is and this is occurring in the red bone marrow, in the core of most bones. In embryonic development, the red bone marrow is derived from the layer of the embryo (mesoderm.)
         Hematopoiesis is the process in which all mature blood cells are produced. It should balance enormous production needs with the need to regulate the number of each blood cell type in the circulation. Invertebrates, almost all of the hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow and are derived from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal.

Related Societies: International Society for Stem Cell Research| Formosa Association Regenerative Medicine (FARM)| International Stem Cell Research| Australasian Society for Stem Cell Research |The National Stem Cell Foundation| Dutch Society for Stem Cell Research |Canadian Association for Research in Regenerative Medicine. 

Neural: Brain and Nervous System

          Before a half-century, regeneration of neurons has been admitted as an impossible event. Thus, neurodegenerative disorders (e.g. Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis), vascular events (e.g. stroke) and traumatic diseases (e.g. spinal cord injury) have been admitted as incurable diseases. Afterward, tissue reparative and regenerative potential of stem cell researches for these disorders drew the attention of the scientist to replacement therapy. For cell transplantation purpose many types of stem cells such as mononuclear stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and olfactory unsheathing cells can be used. As an output, cell transplantation has become a better therapeutic option for these neurologic disorders.

Related Societies: California Institute for Regenerative Medicine| Australian Society for Stem Cell Research| Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research| Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine |Society for Hematology and Stem Cells (ISEH)

Musculoskeletal: Bone, Cartilage and Muscle

                     Muscle is a good source of adult stem cells that can differentiate into cells of different lineages. satellite cells are the most Known muscle progenitor cells, which contribute to the replenishment of the myogenic cell pool and can become osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes.
                 The populations of stem cells that appear to be distinct from SC have been discovered recently. Muscle-derived stem cells can be divided into two major categories based on these cells' varied abilities to differentiate into myogenic lineages. Muscle-derived stem cells that can differentiate into myogenic cells are usually CD45 and MDSCs with less myogenic potential are CD45+. 
                In tissue engineering applications, Muscle-derived stem cell particularly those genetically engineered to express growth factors have been demonstrated to possess great potential for the regeneration. And for the repair of bone, muscle, and cartilage. greatly enhance the usefulness of muscle-derived stem cells, as well as other adult stem cells, for regeneration applications and tissue repair.

Related Societies: The National Stem Cell Foundation |Dutch Society for Stem Cell Research |Canadian Association for Research in Regenerative Medicine

Epithelial: Gastrointestinal and Skin

            Epithelial cells constitute at least 60% of all differentiated cells in the body. All epithelial tissues including the skin and the epithelial linings contain stem cells that are capable of differentiation and self-renewal. Exposures of these epithelia to environmental insult, together with aging and genetic factors, result in debilitating conditions such as wound healing defects, chronic ulcers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn’s disease, and corneal degeneration. Congenital mutations in single genes result in devastating diseases of the skin and other epithelia, such as Pigmentosum, Xeroderma, Epidermolysis Bullosa.

Related Societies: European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute| International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS) | South African Stem Cell Transplantation Society (SASCeTS)

Anti-HIV gene therapy:

            Stem cell-based therapeutic intervention strategies for treating HIV infection have undergone a renaissance as a major focus of the investigation. Unlike most conventional antiviral therapies, genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells possess the capacity for prolonged self-renewal that would continuously produce protected immune cells to fight against HIV. A successful strategy, therefore, has the potential to stably control and ultimately eradicate HIV from patients by a single or minimal treatment. The progress in the clinical trials and development of new technologies sets the stage for the current generation of gene therapy approaches to combat HIV infection.

Related Societies: Stem Cell Society Singapore |STEM CELLS Translational Medicine (SCTM) |New York Stem Cell Foundation| American Society for Reproductive Medicine |Alliance for Regenerative Medicine

Stem cell in Treatment of immunodeficiency and Autoimmune diseases

            The autoimmune diseases are treated with immune suppressive agents such as methotrexate, steroids, cyclosporine, gold, and infliximab. These approaches possess the possibility of long-term adverse effects and the need for life-long treatment. Stem cell therapy has been demonstrated to induce profound healing activity in animals with various forms of autoimmune disorders. Besides healing broken tissues, stem cells have the distinctive ability to modulate the system therefore on shut off pathological responses whereas protective its ability to fight unwellness.
             Mesenchymal stem cells home to inflamed tissue and begin manufacturing medicinal drug agents. These mediators act domestically and don't suppress the reaction of the human whole body. Mesenchymal stem cells induce the production of T regulatory cells and a type of immune cell whose works to protect the body against immunological self-attack.

Related Societies: Korean Society for Stem Cell Research | Danish Stem Cell Society| European Stem Cell Community |European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute |International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS) | South African Stem Cell Transplantation Society (SASCeTS)

Stem Cells and Eye Development

            Cells therapies being explored extensively as treatments for chronic disease, either for commutation lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, supported newer proof, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived biological process factors shield compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the expansion of latest connections.
            Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from stem cells may replace lost retinal pigment epithelial cells and restore vision in the eye, as treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells has been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells.

Related Societies: Taiwan Society for Stem Cell Research (TSSCR) | Stem Cell Society Singapore| STEM CELLS Translational Medicine (SCTM) | New York Stem Cell Foundation |American Society for Reproductive Medicine| Alliance for Regenerative Medicine.

 

Gene therapy and Stem cell therapeutics

            Gene therapy is the therapy of change or removal in the content of a person’s genetic code with the goal of curing a disease. The transferred genetic material changes how a protein is produced by the cell. Gene therapy can be used to reduce levels of a disease-causing version of a protein and increase the production of disease-fighting proteins or to produce new or modified proteins.

Related Societies: International Society for Stem Cell Research| Formosa Association Regenerative Medicine (FARM)| International Stem Cell Research | Australasian Society for Stem Cell Research |The National Stem Cell Foundation | Dutch Society for Stem Cell Research | Canadian Association for Research in Regenerative Medicine. 

Rehabilitation and Tissue Engineering

            Tissue Engineering based on the advance of Tissue and Organ Substitutes by controlling their environment, biomechanical and biophysical parameters which including the utilization of a scaffold for new tissue. These frameworks help to empower the In-vitro investigation of human physiology and physiopathology. And giving a rendezvous of biomedical instruments with potential materialness in toxicology, tissue substitution, medicinal gadgets, repair, and Regenerative Medicine. Regeneration is the progression of renewal, regeneration, and growth that makes it cells, organ regeneration to natural changes or events that cause damage.

Related Societies: Australian Society for Stem Cell Research |Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research| Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine |Society for Hematology and Stem Cells (ISEH)

Adult Stem Cells

            Adult stem cells have two characteristics, they have the ability to make the same copies of themselves for long periods of time; this proliferate is referred to as long-term self-renewal. And second, they can give rise to mature cell types, that have characteristic specialized functions and morphologies (shapes). Stem cells generate an intermediate cell type before they achieve their fully differentiated state. The intermediate cell or progenitor in adult tissues is partly differentiated cells that divide and give rise to differentiated cells. This kind of cell is usually regarded as committed. And to differentiating along a particular cellular development pathway, although this characteristic may not be as definitive.

Related Societies: Stem Cell Evaluation Technology Research Association |International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) | The Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (The Stem Cell Center )| German Society for Stem Cell Research (GSZ)| Euro Stem Cell: Stem Cell Research 

Embryonic Stem Cells

            Embryonic stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells of a human embryo. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, they are able to grow into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. ES cells are distinguished by two distinctive properties: pluripotency, and the ability to replicate indefinitely. Pluripotency distinguishes ESC from adult stem cells found in the adult’s body and embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body. Adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a limited number of cell types. ESC is capable of propagating itself indefinitely. Because of the plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal ESC, ES cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Diseases that could potentially be treated by pluripotent stem cells include immune-system and blood-related genetic diseases, cancers, and disorders; juvenile diabetes; Parkinson's; blindness and spinal cord injuries.

Related Societies: International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS)| South African Stem Cell Transplantation Society (SASCeTS)

Bioethics of Stem cell research

                  Stem cell analysis has been touted as an extremely promising avenue for the treatment of sickness and injury. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to differentiate into more than 200 different cell types in the human body. While these controversial cells have been promoted as more promising for the treatment of disease, Adult stem cells are found in several human tissues (e.g., bone marrow and umbilical cord blood), and in contrast to embryonic stem cells do not raise the same kind of moral concerns and have provided a number of successful treatments and therapies.
            Advancement in Stem cells also includes the discovery, development of induced pluripotent stem cells and direct cell reprogramming, both of which hold significant promise for the understanding and treatment of disease and avoid the moral considerations of embryonic vegetative cell analysis. Other moral concerns relating to vegetative cell analysis embody the potential use of human pluripotent stem cells in animals similarly because of the potential creation of human gametes. Stem cell analysis falls underneath the broader class of biotechnology.

Related Societies: The Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (The Stem Cell Center ) |German Society for Stem Cell Research (GSZ); Euro Stem Cell: Stem Cell Research

Generation and maintenance of stem cells

               Embryonic stem cells have the capability of self-renewing and differentiating to the desired fate depending on its position within the body. Stem cell physiological condition is maintained through epigenetic mechanisms that square measure extremely dynamic in regulation the body substance structure also as specific citron transcription programs. Epigenetics has been wont to consult with changes in the organic phenomena, which are heritable through modifications not affecting the DNA sequence.
            The class epigenome undergoes international reworking throughout early somatic cell development that needs the commitment of cells to be restricted to the required lineage. There has been multiple evidence suggesting that the maintenance of the lineage commitment of stem cells is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and regulation of ATP-dependent remoulding of chromatin structure. Based on the simple protein code hypothesis, distinct valence simple protein modifications will result in functionally distinct body substance structures that influence the fate of the cell.

Related Societies: California Institute for Regenerative Medicine |Australian Society for Stem Cell Research | Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research | Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine| Society for Hematology and Stem Cells (ISEH) 

Aging and Stem Cells

                 The somatic cell theory of aging postulates that the aging method is that the results of the shortcoming of varied kinds of stem cells to still refill the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. Damage and error accumulation in genetic material is always a problem for systems regardless of age.
             The number of stem cells in individuals, children, kids, youngsters, teenagers, teens, adolescents, tykes, youth is incredibly abundant above older people and therefore creates additional robust an improved and more economical replacement mechanism within the young contrary to the old. In other words, aging is not a matter of the increase in damage, but a matter of failure to replace it due to a decreased number of stem cells. Stem cells decrease in range and have a tendency to lose the power to differentiate into progenies or liquid body substance lineages and myeloid lineages.
            Maintaining the equilibrium of somatic cell pools needs many conditions. Balancing proliferation and quiescence along with homing (See niche) and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells are favouring elements of stem cell pool maintenance while differentiation, mobilization, and senescence are detrimental elements. These detrimental effects will eventually cause apoptosis.

Related Societies: International Society for Stem Cell Research| Formosa Association Regenerative Medicine (FARM)| International Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Banking

                Stem cell banking is the extraction, processing, and storage of stem cells which can be used for treatment when required. Stem cells have the superb power to remodel into any tissue or organ within the body. It is thanks to this distinctive characteristic that they need the potential to treat over eighty dangerous diseases and supply varied advantages to the baby, its siblings and the family. There are a variety of sources from where stem cells can be banked, with the most common amongst them being the umbilical cord. Cord blood banking is the extraction of stem cells from the fatal membrane.
            This is done during childbirth and is a fast, hassle-free and painless procedure. While, the umbilical cord and cord blood are the foremost common sources of stem cells - the Placenta, amniotic sac, and amniotic fluid are by far the richest sources, in terms of both - quantity and quality. Some other rich sources of stem cells are Placenta, Umbilical Cord, Amniotic Fluid, Dental Stem Cells, Menstrual Fluid, Adipose Tissue, and Bone Marrow.

Related Societies: California Institute for Regenerative Medicine| Australian Society for Stem Cell Research| Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research| Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine |Society for Hematology and Stem Cells (ISEH)

3D Stem Cell

           Recent advances have allowed for three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies to be applied to biocompatible materials, cells and supporting elements, making a field of 3D bio printing that holds nice promise for artificial organ printing and regenerative medicine. At the identical time, stem cells, like human elicited pluripotent stem cells, have driven a paradigm shift in tissue regeneration and also the modeling of human unwellness, and represent an unlimited cell supply for tissue regeneration and also the study of human unwellness. The ability to reprogram patient-specific cells holds the promise of associate degree increased understanding of unwellness mechanisms and composition variability.
            3D bio printing has been with success performed exploitation of multiple vegetative cell kinds of totally different lineages and efficiency. The type of 3D bio printing employed ranged from microextrusion bio printing, inkjet bio printing, laser-assisted bio printing, to newer technologies such as scaffold-free spheroid-based bio printing. This review discusses the present advances, applications, limitations, and way forward for 3D bio printing exploitation stem cells, by organ systems.

Related Societies: European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute| International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS) |South African Stem Cell Transplantation Society (SASCeTS)

Stem cell in Disease modelling and drug discovery

            The derivation of evoked pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) over a decade agony sparked widespread enthusiasm for the event of recent models of human illness, increased platforms for drug discovery and more widespread use of autologous cell-based therapy. Early studies mistreatment directed differentiation of iPSCs often uncovered cell-level phenotypes in inheritable diseases, however, the interpretation of tissue-level and organ-level diseases has needed the event of additional advanced, 3D, multicellular systems. Human–rodent chimeras and Organoids additional accurately mirror the varied cellular ecosystems of advanced tissues and are being applied to iPSC illness models to recapitulate the pathobiology of a broad spectrum of human maladies, including infectious diseases, genetic disorders, and cancer.

Related Societies: Stem Cell Evaluation Technology Research Association | International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) |The Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (The Stem Cell Center ).

Stem cell and Nanotechnology

            Stem cell nanotechnology has emerged as a brand-new exciting field. Experimental and theoretical studies of the interaction between nanostructures or nanomaterials and stem cells have made great advances. The importance of nanomaterials, nanostructures, and nanotechnology to the basic developments in stem cell-based therapies for injuries and degenerative diseases has been recognized. Apart from tracking the localization of stem cells, nanotechnology has improved target ability, half-life, and stability of stem cells by providing a suitable microenvironment. In particular, nanomaterials have played a significant role in the isolation and proliferation or differentiation of stem cells and intracellular delivery of small and macromolecules within stem cells.In this field over the past few years, explore the appliance prospects, and discuss the problems, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of raising the appliance of applied science in stem cells research and development. 

Related Societies: Stem Cell Evaluation Technology Research Association| International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) |The Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (The Stem Cell Center )| German Society for Stem Cell Research (GSZ) |Euro Stem Cell: Stem Cell Research

New Progress in Stem-Cell-Free Regenerative Medicine

            There are many research advancements and applications of Stem Cells. Stem cell research that can be applied to develop new therapies includes cell replacement therapy, development of drugs, using iPSC technology to generate stem cells from the patient’s skin or blood, using trans differentiation technology to convert a specialized cell type to a progenitor cell and many more. It also carries the immense potential for treating a number of human diseases such as to repair or regenerate blood vessels, treatment of eyesight, Diabetes, Neurodegenerative Disorders, and Wound Healing, etc.

Related Societies: European Cancer Stem Cell Research Institute| International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS); South African Stem Cell Transplantation Society (SASCeTS).